according to . . .
THE BIBLE and HISTORICAL REFERENCES
that relate to doctrines and practices of the Early Church, 33-100 A.D.
|Compiled by Lewis Manuwal|
YOU BE IMMERSED or SPRINKLED WHEN BAPTIZED?
The LAST MESSAGE preached by Jesus was a COMMAND to BAPTIZE all nations. Matthew 28:19
The FIRST MESSAGE preached by the apostles resulted in a command for EVERYONE to be BAPTIZED. Acts 2:38
BAPTISM IS IMPORTANT AND SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED ACCORDING TO SCRIPTURE.
Below are two columns listing the SCRIPTURES for
|MUCH WATER||" And John also was baptizing in Aenon . . . because there was much water there" John 3:23|
|INTO THE WATER||"They went down both into the water, . . . and he baptized him" Acts 8:38|
|OUT OF THE WATER||"They were come up out of the water" Acts 8:39|
|BURIED||"We are buried with him by baptism" Romans 6:4|
|PLANTED||"We have been planted together" Romans 6:5|
Paul said, "If we or an angel from heaven preach
any other gospel let him be accursed" Galatians 1:8, 9
IMMERSE or SPRINKLE?
|BAPTIZO - GREEK||RANTIZO - GREEK|
|Below are writings of eminent
Bible scholars and authorities on the subject.
Most of these references can be found in your local library.
|Greek-English Lexicon||Baptism taken from Greek word baptizo - to dip, immerse.|
|Classic Greek-English Dictionary, by Pollet||Greek word baptizo means to dip under.|
|Greek-English Dictionary, by Divry's||Greek word baptizo - to immerse.|
|Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia||Baptism was always a burial. The command to baptize was a command to immerse. Vol 1, pg 451|
|Catholic Biblical Encyclopedia||Immersion was oldest method employed. Buried in baptism. Romans 6:4. Pg 61, Paragraph 2.|
|Encyclopedia Dictionary of the Bible||It is evident that the action performed in baptizing was immersion. Page 202|
|World Book Encyclopedia||The early church practiced immersion or submerging under the water. Volume 2, page 70.|
|Encyclopedia of Lutheran Church||Martin Luther preferred immersion as more true to original practice. Volume 1, Page 188.|
|Pulpit Commentary, by Eminent Scholars||Romans 6:4, "Buried in baptism." The reference is to baptism by immersion. Volume 18, Page 156.|
|An important factor is overlooked by the exponents of
sprinkling. The original New Testament text and the spoken language of
that day was Greek. The authors of the New Testament knew the Greek word
"baptizo" meant to immerse. They also knew the Greek word
"rantizo" meant to sprinkle. These often used words were
never interchangeable, having separate meanings. If God had intended
for His ministers to sprinkle, the Greek word "rantizo" would
have been employed, not "baptizo."
If sprinkling cannot be found in the Bible, then the
practice is a tradition of man,
|As with sprinkling, the doctrine of infant baptism cannot be found in the New Testament without adding to it. Scriptural logic cries out against infant baptism. The very mode (immersion) makes it illogical and impractical. The teaching surrounding baptism automatically prohibits it.|
THE BIBLE SPEAKS!
|MATTHEW 28:19||Teach all nations, baptizing them" Teaching or preaching must precede baptism. See Acts 2:41.|
|ACTS 8:36-37||Eunuch, "What doth hinder me to be baptized?" Philip, "If Thou believest with all thine heart." Believing is a prerequisite of baptism. See Mark 16:16.|
|ACTS 2:38||"Repent and be baptized everyone of you." Repentance must precede baptism. See Luke 24:47|
DID YOU KNOW?
Chambers Encyclopedia. Vol 2, Pg 112
|The first recipients of baptism were adults. Infant baptism was a later development that led to sprinkling.|
|Interpreters Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, Pg. 352||There is no direct evidence in the New Testament for infant baptism|
|Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol 1, Pg 138||The earliest Christian literature makes no reference to baptism of infants|
|History of Church, by Walker, Pgs 87, 88||The first mention of infant baptism was about 185 A.D. Not universal until 6th Century.|
|Time Magazine, Pg. 58 - May 1968||That 350 Lutheran pastors of W. Germany wish to abandon infant baptism. Many of these same pastors refused to baptize their own infants. They felt that baptism should be understood first by the recipient.|
|Time Magazine, Pg 58 - May 1968||That Karl Barth of Switzerland, the best known theologian of 20th Century said, "There is not Biblical basis for infant baptism - this tradition is simply an old error of the church."|
A child should be old enough to receive teaching,
believe, and repent of sin before being baptized.
BAPTISM -- IS IT IN THE PLAN OF SALVATION?
1. THE BIBLE SAYS SO!
|JOHN 3:5||"Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he
cannot enter the kingdom of God." Most Bible commentaries
agree that water here refers to baptism.
See, Matthew Henry; Adam Clark; History Christian Church, Walker; Catholic Encyclopedia; Oxford Dictionary of Church; Interpreters Dictionary of Bible; Temples Bible Dictionary.
|MARK 16:16||"He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved." Notice how Jesus places baptism in conjunction with salvation.|
|I PETER 3:21||"Baptism doth also now save us." Also see Acts 10:6, 48|
2. IT REMITS SIN
|HEBREWS 9:22||The application of the blood of Christ is necessary to remit sin. What then is the Biblical way to receive remission of sin? The answer to this question will also be the way to get the Savior's blood applied.|
|LUKE 24:47||"Repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name" (Jesus)|
|ACTS 2:38||'Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins . . . " The blood of Jesus is applied through water baptism in the name of Jesus. Also see I John 5:8 and Acts 22:16.|
3. BAPTISM IN THE CHURCH
Every New Testament church was formed by those whom were
baptized after believing and repenting.
|1. CHURCH AT JERUSALEM||3000 WERE BAPTIZED||Acts 2:41|
|2. CHURCH AT SAMARIA||Believed & were baptized, men & women.||Acts 8:12-16|
|3. CHURCH AT CAESAREA||Peter commanded them to be baptized||Acts 10:48|
|4. CHURCH AT PHILLIPPI||Lydia & the Phillippian jailer baptized||Acts 16:14-33|
|5. CHURCH AT CORINTH||Believed and were baptized||Acts 18:8|
|6. CHURCH AT EPHESUS||Paul rebaptizes certain disciples||Acts 19:1-6|
|7. CHURCH AT GALATIA||Believed Paul and baptized into Christ||Gal. 3:27|
|8. CHURCH AT COLOSSE||They were buried with Christ in Baptism||Col. 2:12|
|9. CHURCH AT ROME||They died to sin, then buried in baptism||Romans 6:1-4|
1. IN THE NAME OF THE FATHER, SON & HOLY GHOST
2. IN THE NAME OF JESUS
Which of these were
practiced by the
Apostles and the Early Church?
Below are two columns for listing the scriptures where the Apostles either taught or practiced water baptism
|IN THE NAME OF JESUS||FATHER, SON AND HOLY GHOST|
|Jews - "Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ" Acts 2:38|
|Samaritans - They were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Acts 8:16|
|Gentiles - "And he (Peter) commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord" Acts 10:48. Jesus is Lord (Acts 2:36)|
|Peter taught - For there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved" Acts 4:12.|
|Paul taught - "And whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus" Col. 3:17|
|Matthew 28:19 was a command by Jesus to baptize in a NAME. The Apostles did not repeat the words of the command, but they did obey it as seen in the scriptures above. Since Father, Son and Holy Ghost are titles of the manifestations of the Almighty Spirit and His body, the Apostles understood His SAVING NAME to be JESUS. Can any dare say that the Apostles disobeyed the Lord, or failed to baptize properly? THE NAME OF THE FATHER, SON AND HOLY GHOST IS JESUS. The actions of the Apostles in the Book of Acts prove this to be true.|
IN THE NAME OF JESUS
HOW DID THE EARLY CHURCH
INTERPRET CHRIST'S COMMAND IN MATTHEW 28:19?
ACTS 2:38, 8:16, 10:48, and 19:5 are four Biblical references that answer this question. If the Biblical record is not enough, please examine the findings of the educated scholars and historians.
|Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (1951), II, 384, 389||"The formula used was 'in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ' or some synonymous phrase."|
|Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (1962), I, 351||"The evidence . . . suggests that baptism in early Christianity was administered not in the threefold name, but 'in the name of Jesus Christ' or 'in the name of the Lord Jesus."|
|Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible (1898), I, 241||"[One could conclude that] the original form of words was 'into the name of Jesus Christ' or 'the Lord Jesus.'"|
|The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1957), I, 435||"The New Testament knows only baptism in the name of Jesus."|
|Canney's Encyclopedia of Religions (1970), page 53||"Persons were baptized at first 'in the name of Jesus Christ' . . . or 'in the name of the Lord Jesus.'"|
|IS IT AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY THAT THE NAME OF JESUS BE
SPOKEN WHEN A CANDIDATE FOR WATER BAPTISM IS BEING BAPTIZED?
For the answer to this question, please read Acts 15:17 and James 2:7 [Greek Interlinear]. First Century Christians INVOKED OR CALLED the name of Jesus over believers in water baptism. If, as some say, "the name of Jesus means the authority of Jesus", then so much more should the NAME, rather than titles, be called over an individual in baptism. Read Matthew 28:18, Acts 4:12 and Colossians 2:9. Jude 3 is an exhortation to "CONTEND FOR THE FAITH ONCE DELIVERED TO THE SAINTS." See Galatians 1:8-9 also. Should anyone dare to change what CHRIST and the Apostles established?
(c) Lewis E. Manuwal all rights reserved
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